The Names of God and Their Meaning in the Old Testament

LORD or Kurios in Greek

Psalms 68:4 “Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH, and rejoice before him.”

Isaiah 12:2 “Behold, God <is> my salvation; I will trust, and not be afraid: for the LORD JEHOVAH <is> my strength and <my> song; he also is become my salvation.”

Isaiah 26:4 “Trust ye in the LORD for ever: for in the LORD JEHOVAH <is> everlasting strength:”

Jehovah/Yahweh/Yahway or YHVH/YHWH
LORD, meaning: He will be, eternal, to be, to exist, and always is. Unchangeable. This name is unique to God alone. The covenant-keeping God. (El Shaddai shows God as coverant maker.)

Exodus 3:13-14 “And Moses said unto God, Behold, <when> I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What <is> his name? what shall I say unto them? {14} And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.”

Exodus 6:3 “And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by <the name of> God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.

Jehovah – Adon (singular); Jehovah – Adonai (plural)
LORD of lords. To judge or rule. Includes meaning of master of owner as well as lord. Emphasizes God as almighty ruler and covenant- keeper.

Nehemiah 10:29 “They clave to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and his judgments and his statutes”

Psalms 109:21 “But do thou for me, O GOD the Lord, for thy name’s sake: because thy mercy <is> good, deliver thou me.”

LORD. Used with Adonai Lord in Exodus 4:10

Exodus 4:10 “And Moses said unto the LORD, O my Lord, I <am> not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I <am> slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.”

Jehovah – El 
Singular form – LORD God.

Psalms 31:5 “Into thine hand I commit my spirit: thou hast redeemed me, O LORD God of truth.”

Jehovah – Elohim
Uni-Plural form (3-in-1) – LORD Gods; Strong or mighty and object of fear. The compound emphasizes God as: creator, governing and redeeming man. Also God’s direct connection with the nation of Israel.

Genesis 2:4 “These <are> the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,”

Numbers 23:22 “God brought them out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn.”

Jehovah – Elyon
The LORD most high.

Psalms 7:17 “I will praise the LORD according to his righteousness: and will sing praise to the name of the LORD most high.”

Jehovah – Jireh
The LORD will provide.

Genesis 22:13-14 “And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind <him> a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. {14} And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said <to> this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.”

Principal of Jireh is fulfilled in the New Testament for any need

Matthew 21:22 “And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.”

Philippians 4:19 “But my God shall supply all your need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus.”

Jehovah – Makeh
The LORD smites, punishes sin.

Ezekiel 7:9 “And mine eye shall not spare, neither will I have pity: I will recompense thee according to thy ways and thine abominations <that> are in the midst of thee; and ye shall know that I <am> the LORD that smiteth.”

Jehovah – Mekaddishkem
The LORD our sanctifer.

Leviticus 20:7-8 “Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy: for I <am> the LORD your God. {8} And ye shall keep my statutes, and do them: I <am> the LORD which sanctify you.”

Exodus 31:13 “Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it <is> a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that <ye> may know that I <am> the LORD that doth sanctify you.”

Jehovah – Nissi
The LORD my banner or ensign.

Exodus 17:10-12 “So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. {11} And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. {12} But Moses’ hands <were> heavy; and they took a stone, and put <it> under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.”

Exodus 17:14-15 “And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this <for> a memorial in a book, and rehearse <it> in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. {15} And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovahnissi:”

Jehovah – Rapha
The LORD who heals.

Exodus 15:26 “And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I <am> the LORD that healeth thee.”

Psalms 103:3 “Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases;”

Psalms 107:20 “He sent his word, and healed them, and delivered <them> from their destructions.”

Isaiah 53:4-5 “Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. {5} But he <was> wounded for our transgressions, <he was> bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace <was> upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.”

Jehovah – Roi
The LORD my shepherd.

Psalms 23:1 “A Psalm of David. The LORD <is> my shepherd; I shall not want.”

Principal of Roi is fulfilled in the New Testament as shepherd:

Mark 6:34 “And Jesus, when he came out, saw much people, and was moved with compassion toward them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he began to teach them many things.”

Hebrews 13:20 “Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,”

Jehovah – Saboath
The LORD of hosts (angelic armies).

1 Samuel 1:3 “And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, <were> there.”

James 5:4 “Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.”

Jehovah – Shalom
The LORD our Peace.

Judges 6:24 “Then Gideon built an altar there unto the LORD, and called it Jehovahshalom: unto this day it <is> yet in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.”

Principal of Shalom is fulfilled in the New Testament for peace:

John 14:27 “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.” Jesus’s peace.

Jehovah – Shammah
The LORD is present.

Ezekiel 48:35 “<It was> round about eighteen thousand <measures>: and the name of the city from <that> day <shall be>, The LORD <is> there.”

Jehovah – Tsidkenu
The LORD our righteousness.

Jeremiah 23:6 “In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this <is> his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.”

Jeremiah 33:16 “In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely: and this <is the name> wherewith she shall be called, The LORD our righteousness.”

Principal of Tsidkenu fulfilled in New Testament righteousness:

1 Corinthians 1:30 “But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:”

EL – Elyon
Most high God. To be elevated. It emphasizes God as the exalted, sovereign one.

Psalms 21:7 “For the king trusteth in the LORD, and through the mercy of the most High he shall not be moved.”

El – Gmulot
The God of recompense.

Jeremiah 51:56 “Because the spoiler is come upon her, <even> upon Babylon, and her mighty men are taken, every one of their bows is broken: for the LORD God of recompenses shall surely requite.”

El – Olam
Everlasting God. (Olam means age, or hidden.)

Isaiah 40:28 “Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, <that> the everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary? <there is> no searching of his understanding.”

El – Roi
The God of sight – who keeps watch.

Genesis 16:13 “And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?”

El – Shaddai
God Almighty. Two roots for the word: 1) to be powerful; and 2) breast, nourisher, sustainer.

Genesis 17:1 “And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I <am> the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.”

Author: Godfrey Gregg